Winter Games
Copyright/Publisher: Epyx, Producer: Action Graphics, Release Year: 1985, Genre: Events, Number Of Players: 1 to 8

You're an athlete at the 1988 Winter Games at Calgary, Alberta, Canada. You're about to move across snow and ice with as much speed, strength, endurance and grace as you can muster in the blustery cold.

This is the winter portion of the world's foremost amateur sports competition. You'll match your skills against the top athletes from a hundred countries.

Be proud. Today you stand among the elite few whose courage and stamina will be tested by these Winter Games. Listen. A fanfare of trumpets sounds as the WINTER GAMES flag is slowly raised. Thousands of white doves are released, symbolically to fly to the countries of the world with the message of peace -- and the news that the Winter Games have begun. This is it -- your chance to go for the Gold!

WINTER GAMES challenges your competitive skills with a series of athletic contests for 1 to 8 players. You can compete in seven challenging winter events -- Ski Jump, Bobsled, Figure Skating, Freestyle Skating, Hot Dog Aerials, Speed Skating and Biathlon (cross-country skiing and rifle shooting).

Practice each event first to hone your skills. Then choose from the 18 countries you can represent in the competition, and go for the gold!

WINTER GAMES provides judges, keeps scores, and awards medals to the winners -- the Gold for first, the Silver for second, and the Bronze for third place. If you break a "World Record," WINTER GAMES will save your name and display it on a special World Records screen.

Get ready to give it your best -- and remember the motto of the ancient Greek atheletes:
Citius -- Altius -- Fortius
"Faster -- Higher -- Stronger!"

Opening Ceremony
A spectacular opening ceremony welcomes you to WINTER GAMES. An athlete bearing the flaming torch mounts the steps to light the sacred fire that burns night and day throughout the WINTER GAMES. White doves are released ove the stadium, to symbolize peace on earth. Let the games begin!

How to Play
Once the opening ceremony concludes, a menu screen offers you a choice of six options. To make a selection, use your joystick to move the cursor to your choice, then press the [FIRE] button.

OPTION 1: Compete in All the Events Compete in all seven events: Ski Jump, Bobsled, Figure Skating, Hot Dog Aerials, Freestyle Skating, Speed Skating, and Biathlon. The computer keeps a running tally of medals awarded to each player.

- To enter your name, type your name on the keyboard and press [RETURN].

- To choose your country, use the joystick to move the cursor to the flag of your choice, then press the [FIRE] button to select that country. (To listen to the country's anthem, type [S].)

- Repeat name and country selection for each additional player (up to eight). When all players' names and countries are entered, press RETURN.

- A verification screen appears. If all names and countries are correct, select [YES] with the joystick and press the [FIRE] button, or type [Y]. To delete names and start again, select [NO] or type [N].

OPTION 2: Compete in Some Events Similar to OPTION 1; however, you can compete in any number of the listed events for this round of international competition.

- Select the event(s) by typing the corresponding numbered key or by moving your joystick and pressing the [FIRE] button.

- The events you select will be displayed in white.

- When you are finished selecting the events, move the cursor to the word [DONE] and press the [FIRE] button.

OPTION 3: Compete in One Event
Similar to OPTION 1; but you only compete in the event you select.
- Use the joystick to choose the event, then press the [FIRE] button. (Or type the key matching the event number.)

OPTION 4: Practice One Event
- No scores are kept during practice rounds.
Move the joystick to choose the event, then press the [FIRE] button. (Or type the key matching the event number.)

OPTION 5: Number of Joysticks
For one player, plug your joystick into Port #2 and select 1. For two or more players, plug both joysticks in and select 2.
- Select 1 or 2 by pressing the [FIRE] button. (Or type 1 or 2.)

OPTION 6: See World Records
Displays the highest score recorded in all events, with the name and country of the player who achieved each world record.
- Press the [FIRE] button to return to the menu.

OPTION 7: Opening Ceremonies
Repeats the opening ceremonies.


Figure Skating

Figure Skating (Short Program) is a one-minute, timed exercise of seven compulsory movements: Camel Spin, Sit Spin, Double Axel Jump, Triple Axel Jump, Double Lutz Jump, Triple Lutz Jump, and Camel into Sit Spin. You can perform the seven movements in any order you choose. It's the grace and form of your skating that count!

- Press the [FIRE] button to start Figure Skating.
- To begin a movement, point the joystick in the direction of the movement you want to make and press the [FIRE] button.
- To COMPLETE a movement, center the joystick and press the [FIRE] button.
- To SKATE BACKWARD, center the joystick and press the FIRE button.

These are the key Figure Skating movements, in their relative joystick positions: No picture available

Figure Skating Tips:
AWKWARD: A movement will be judged as elegant or awkward, depending on when you press the [FIRE] buttton. If you're skating forward and "trigger" a jump when the skater's legs are in open stride, the jump will be perfect. If the skater's legs are closed, the jump will be awkward. The opposite is true if you're skating backwards: trigger the jump when the skater's legs are closed and the jump will be perfect. Practice makes perfect, so keep trying!

FORWARD SKATING performers can do a Double or Triple Axel Jump or turn around and begin skating backwards. Remember: Be skating forwards when time runs out -- if you're skating backwards you'll fall down!

BACKWARD SKATING athletes can do a Double or Triple Lutz Jump, a Camel or Sit Spin, or turn around and begin skating forward.

When you do SPINS, try to make six rotations. If you turn fewer than six times, your exit will be awkward; more than six turns will make you dizzy and you'll fall.

Don't Fall Down!

You'll fall down if you try to move directly from a jump to a spin, a spin to a jump, a jump to another jump, or a Sit Spin to another Camel Spin. Skate backwards in between movements; skate forwards before you do an Axel Jump.

Camel into Sit Spin: You can move directly from a Camel Spin to a Sit Spin -- a very elegant combination worth 1.2 points!

Figure Skating Scores
You begin with a score of 0.0 The best score is 6 points. All scores are displayed in tenths. And don't worry -- your score can't go below 0.
After you successfully complete each Figure Skating movement, your score is added like this:

Camel Spin .7
Sit Spin .7
Double Axel Jump .6
Triple Axel Jump 1.1
Double Lutz .6
Triple Lutz 1.1
Camel into Sit Spin 1.2
Total Score 6.0

Total Score Penalties
.7 Point penalty for each fall.
.2 Point penalty for each awkward movement.

CREDITS: Only the first attempt at each movement completed within the one minute is scored.

Free Skating
In Free Skating competition, you chose the jumps and spins, inventing your own choreography to music. You have two minutes to complete the program.

Free Skating Scores
In Free Skating, you try to make three successful attempts of the seven Figure Skating movements: Camel Spin, Sit Spin, Double and Triple Axel, Double and Triple Lutz and Camel into Sit Spin. The Judges will watch you closely in this event and calculate your maximum score based upon the number of falls and awkward movements in your routine. A smart performer will complete three attempts of as many difficult movements as possible within the two-minute time limit, to get the highest possible score. You begin with 0 points. The Maximum score (ceiling) you can get is 6.0 -- no matter how high your total score.

Note: If you successfully complete a fourth attempt at a movement the Judges will not credit your score.

Free Skating Scores
Camel Spin .3
Sit Spin .3
(1.8 points maximum)
Camel into Sit Spin .5
(1.5 points maximum)
Double Lutz Jump .2
Double Axel Jump .2
(1.2 points maximum)
Triple Axel Jump .4
Triple Lutz Jump .4
(2.4 points maximum) -----
Total 6.9
(6.0 Maximum Ceiling)

Total and Maximum Score Penalties
Fall -.5 -.2
Awkward -.2 -.05
Note: No penalty for failing to attempt all seven movements.

Your Total Score: 6.9 Maximum: 6.0
1 Fall -.5 -.2
2 Awkwards -.4 -.1
----- Your Final -----
Total 6.0 Score -> 5.7

CREDITS: Only the movements completed within the two-minutes are scored.

Movement attempts will be added to your score only if they're successfully completed.

Speed Skating
Speed Skaters can move at 30 miles per hour -- much faster than athletic track runners. In fact, Speed Skating champions are the fastest self-propelled human beings over level earth!

In Speed Skating, two races skate side-by-side, in separate lanes, as fast as they can go!

- When "PRESS YOUR BUTTON" appears on either half of the screen, the player whose name appears on that half of the screen must press the joystick FIRE button. The next player does the same. This begins the countdown.

- When the countdown reaches "GO," begin skating by moving the joystick to the LEFT and RIGHT to move your skater's legs. The trick is to make the skater's legs move back and forth as in real skating.

- Continue skatinig by moving the joystick back and forth in rhythmic strokes to move your racer's legs. Build your natural skating rhythm faster to get up t speed -- and GO FOR IT!

- The skater with the fastest time wins the race.

- When the race is over, press the FIRE button to begin the next event.

Hot Dog Aerials
This demonstration sport tests your guts, grace and precision on skis. Strive for a performance of athletic artistry as you flip through the air in a dazzling series of daredevil moves.

- Push the FIRE button to start a jump.

- Push the joystick in one of these six directions to begin a movement:
[LEFT+UP] - Daffy
[RIGHT+UP] - Back Scratch
[RIGHT] - Forward Flip
[LEFT+DOWN] - Mule Kick
[LEFT] - Back Flip

- To do one movement after another, move the joystick when the Hot Dog Skier is in mid-air -- timing is crucial.

- To get out of a move or begin another move push the joystick to the center (LAND) position.

- Hold each movement (except the Flips) until you choose a different move.

Go into the landing position before you hit the ground, or you'll Fall.

The score is based on both style and difficulty, and is displayed after you land. The maximum is 10 points.

DIFFICULTY is judged by the number of different maneuvers performed in mid-air. Any combination of movements can be mixed together for a total maximum score of 10. Combinations of different movements count for the most points. Points will be deducted for awkward movements. Watch your landing! If you fall, you won't receive a score.

1 Stunt 6.3
1 Flip 7.2
2 Stunts (Same) 8.7
2 Flips (Same) 9.2
2 Stunts (Different) 9.6
1 Stunt and 1 Flip 10.0
2 Flips (Different) 10.0
1.4 point penalty for each awkward movement.

Ski Jump
Every gust of wind chills your body as you look down from the top of the jump tower to the runway far below. The judges and spectators look like insects from this height. GO! Your coiled body lurches forward and suddenly you're into another world!

You crouch down low, in a tucked position, to accumulate as much speed as possible. At the take-off, you leap out, push up, and lean forward, over the edge of your skis, to reduce wind resistance and increase the length of your jump.

- Press the FIRE button to begin your approach.

- When you reach the takeoff point, press the FIRE button.

- In the air, watch the upper right-hand corner of the screen for faults. Correct faults quickly to get maximum style points and distance.
- If your knees are BENT, move the joystick UP to correct.
- If you're TOO FAR FORWARD, move joystick LEFT.
- TOO FAR BACK, move joystick RIGHT.
- SKIS CROSSED, move joystick DOWN.

- If you don't correct your faults in time, your Ski Jumper's wild antics will cause wind resistance and lose style points.

Ski Jump scores are based on distance and form.

DISTANCE: is based on the timing of the takeoff, and the aerodynamics of the Jumper in the air.

STYLE: You'll get more points if you recover quickly from faults and don't fall.

Your maximum is tallied by multiplying your DISTANCE (x) 3 (+) STYLE POINTS. A respectable Ski Jump score would be a flight of 60 meters and 20 style points for a total of 200 points.

Race over a cross-country track on skis with a .22 caliber rifle slung over your shoulder. You have only a few cartridges to fire at the required targets, so steady your sights and develop an eagle eye before you fire away!

- Press the FIRE button to start cross-country skiing.

- Move your joystick left and right to move your skier's legs in steady, rhythmic kicks and glides.

- On LEVEL GROUND, keep up a steady pace by moving your joystick back and forth.

- For UPHILL terrain, move the joystick faster to increase speed.

- DOWNHILL stretches go fastest if you use the double-pole technique. Pull the joystick down when the skier's hands are in front, to get the maximum push down the slope.

- SHOOTING: You are issued five cartridges to shoot at five targets, and every miss is a 5-second penalty. The gun must be loaded and the shell ejected after each shot. Pull the joystick BACK to open the gun chamber. Push the joystick FORWARD to load the shell. Push the FIRE button to shoot. Repeat for the next shot. The skier's heart rate affects your accuracy -- so cool down, and take careful aim before you fire!

- The winner or high score is the skier with the fastest total time.

Prepare to careen down a track of solid ice -- while you crouch in a precision-built machine of steel and aluminum. You'll fly around hair-raising turns, then plummet down the bumpy straightaways at speeds exceeding 90 miles per hour!

- Press the FIRE button to begin the race.

- Move the joystick left and right to guide your sled.

- HINTS: Steer hard! To avoid capsizing at the turns, try to anticipate the pull of centrifugal force, and steer hard in the opposite direction.

- Watch your speed! The power bar at the bottom of the screen shows how fast you're going. The faster you go, the harder you have to steer to keep plummetting toward the finish.

- Learn the course! An intimate knowledge of the course is important, so you learn the best position to take each corner.

- o The winning bobsled's score is based upon the fastest time through the tracks.

** Awards Ceremony **
After every event, the names, countries and scores of all competitors are listed in the order they placed. The name of the Gold Medal winner appears at the top of the screen, and his or her country's national anthem is played.

** Champion Ceremony **
If players compete in all WINTER GAMES events, a Grand Champion of the games is selected based on the number of points awarded.
First Place = 5 points
Second Place = 3 points
Third Place = 1 point

The points are totalled after all events have been completed, and the player with the most points is honoured as the Grand Champion. The ceremony takes place after the Awards Ceremony for the final event.

If a world record is achieved in any event, the name of the record-breaking player is saved by the WINTER GAMES program. The records are displayed on the World Records screen. If a new record is set for an event, the previous record is erased and the new information appears in its place.

Continuing Play
Try to restart WINTER GAMES at any time, press RUN/STOP and RESTORE at the same time. The program will return to the main menu. You may be instructed to turn over your disk at this time.

Skiing, skating and sledding began centuries ago as fun and practical ways for people to move across snow and ice.Skiing

The earliest skis may have existed about 4,000 or 5,000 years ago in Scandanavia. Ski bindings were invented in the 1860's by Sondre Nordheim, of Mordegal, Norway.

Once skiers could skip the toes of their boots into iron pieces, then fasten their heels with straps or springs, they gained much more control of their long wooden slats -- and they could move with breathtaking speed. Norwegian emigrants pioneered the sport all overthe world. Skating Skating began around 1000 B.C. Before the Iron Age, Nordic people made skates from elk, ox and reindeer bones. In fact, anthropologists have discovered bone skates they believe to be at least 20 centuriesold!

Since the Middle Ages, people have skated on canals in Holland. Ice skating was a very fashionable recreation in the French court in the 1770s, when Marie Antoinette was an avid enthusiast.Sledding

Primitive sleds were used for transportation before 3,000 B.C. in Norther Europe. The American Indians tied poles together with thongs to carry loads over snow.

The thrill of riding a speeding sled down a steep hill caught on in the 1500s in Germany, when people rode toboggans over snowy hillsides. Sledding became a real sport when British and American tourists started racing sleds down snowbound mountain roads in the European Alps in the middle of the 19th Century. Bobsled races developed in the 1880s in Switzerland.

The first WINTER GAMES were held at Chamonix, France in 1924, when they were accepted as a celebration comparable to the Summer Games and given the official blessing of the International Olympic Committee. Since then, the WINTER GAMES have been held at the following locations:

1924 - Chamonix, France
1928 - St. Moritz, Switzerland
1932 - Lake Placid, New York
1936 - Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
1948 - St. Moritz, Switzerland
1952 - Oslo, Norway
1956 - Cortina, Italy
1960 - Squaw Valley, California
1964 - Innsbruck, Austria
1968 - Grenoble, France
1972 - Sapporo, Japan
1976 - Innsbruck, Austria
1980 - Lake Placid, New York
1984 - Sarajevo, Yugoslavia
1988 - Calgary, Ontario